Diffractometer- APD 2000 PRO




 















 

 

Overview

APD 2000 PRO is a high power - Theta/2Theta - laboratory powder X-Ray diffractometer

equipped with all the most modern technical features which grant accuracy, precision, safety

and easiness of use for XRD analysis of polycrystalline materials.

Thanks to the wide offer of configurations and accessories such as high-speed

detector, scintillation counter, high-low temperature and humidity chamber, secondary

monochromator, spinner and multiple sample holder, APD 2000 PRO is a powerful tool for

powder diffraction applications such as routine qualitative and quantitative phase analysis,

non-ambient analysis, structure solution and refinement, crystallite size and degree of crystallinity calculation.


Features

  • Qualitative and quantitative powder X-ray diffractometer
  • High stability X-ray generator through precision feedback control circuits
  • Automatic ramp of the high voltage and emission current to preset values
  • Ceramic X-ray tubes with high reproducibility and stability of focus position
  • Microfocus tubes and policapillary collimators
  • Focusing Ka, Johannson monochromators for low background and high resolution
  • Flat and curved secondary graphite monochromators suitable for Ag, Cr, Fe, Cu, Co and Mo radiations
  • Possibility of changing automatically from transmission to reflection mode
  • High precision, high speed goniometer controlled by optical encoders
  • Traditional,rotating, multi sample and capillary sample holders
  • Scintillation counters, silicon strip and energy dispersive detectors
  • Non-ambient analysis, low and high temperature chambers, humidity device
  • Double safety circuit
  • Radiation enclosure with high accessibility and visibility of the goniometer
  • Crystallographic software including Rietveld's refinement 

The device is typically used

  • Geology and Mineralogy
  • Clays
  • Glass - Ceramics
  • Cement
  • Petrochemicals
  • Catalysts
  • Polymers
  • Forensics
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Biosciences
  • Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Cosmetics
  • Enviromentals
  • Art and Archeology

 
Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

X-ray generator

Maximum output power

3 kW (option: 4 kW)

Output stability

<0.01% (for 10% power supply fluctuation)

Max. output voltage

60 kV

Max. output current

60 mA (option: 80 mA)

Voltage step width

0.1kV

Current step width

0.1mA

Ripple

0.03% rms < 1kHz, 0.75% rms > 1kHz

Preheat and ramp

Automatic preheat and ramp control circuit

Input voltage

220 Vac +/- 10%,50 or 60 Hz, single phase

Size

Width 48.3 cm, height 13.3 cm, depth 56 cm

 

 

X-ray tube

Type

Glass (option: ceramic), Cu anode, long fine fo- cus (options: any kind of X-ray tube)

Focus

0.4 x 12 mm LFF (options: 0.4 x 8 mm FF;1x 10 mm NF; 2 x 12 mm BF)

Max. output

3.0 kW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goniometer

Configurations

Vertical and horizontal Theta/2 Theta geometry

Measuring circle diameters

350 – 400 mm

Vertical Scanningangular range

- 60 < 2 theta < + 168 (depends on accessories)

Horizontal Scanningangular range

- 110 < 2 theta < + 168 (depends on accessories)

Smallest selectable stepsize

0.0001

Angular reproducibility

± 0.0001

Modes of operation

Continuous scan, step scan, theta or 2 theta

scan, fast scan, theta axis oscillation

Variable divergence slits

0 – 4

Variable anti-scatter slits

0 – 4

Variable receiving slits

0 – 4

Soller slits

20

 

Detector

Type

Scintillation counter Nal (options: YAP(Ce); multi strip and CCD detectors)

Countrate

2 x 1. 0_6 cps (Nal); 2 x 107 cps (YAP(Ce));

 

Case

Dimensions

Width 850 mm, heigh 1680 mm, depth 750 mm

Leakage X-rays

< 1mSv/Year (full safety shielding according to the international guidelines)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Processing unit

Computer type

Personal Computer, the latest version

Items controlled

X-ray generator, goniometer, sample holder, de- tector,counting chain

 

 

 

 

Basic data processing

Polynomial least squares smoothing. Fourier smoothing.

Search for Peaks (automatic and man- ual). 

Spline  background subtraction. 

Single peak analysis (area,FWHM, centroid, background). 

Mar- quardt fit (with pseudo-Voigt and Pearson VIIcurves, 

Ka2 contribution, weighted sum of squares). 

Sum and multiply by a constant. 

Scale normalization. Zoom. Graphical windows. 

Overlap and comparison of diffractograms. Multiview function. 

Cursor scan. Creation of graphic files .BMP. ICDD-PDF2 Card Overlap. Creation of calibration curves. Analysis of unknown samples. Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis. 

Rietveld analysis, crystalline struc- tural analysis,

crystallite size and lattice strain, crystallinity calculation.

 

Schematics 




Contact Information
Ing. Erik Wiesmüller

Email : office@wiesmueller.com

Telephone : +43 (0)2262 72027

Fax : +43 (0)2262 72027

Newsletter

Diffractometer- ARE X























Overview

AREX is a complete automated instrument for retained austenite measurement according to ASTM E 975 - 03.

Accurate measurement of the retained austenite content is important in the development and control of a heat treatment process.

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the only method available that can accurately determine retained austenite contents down to 0.5 volume percent.

 

Features

  • In compliance with ASTM E 975 - 03
  • High stability X-ray generator through precision feedback control circuits
  • Automatic ramp of the high voltage and emission current to preset values
  • High power and brilliant glass and ceramic Mo X-ray tubes: 60 kV
  • High focussing mono-capillary collimator
  • 2 Theta range: 27 to 40°
  • Sample holder: 110 x 150 mm
  • High resolution CCD speed detector
  • Acquisition time < 5 min
  • Radiation enclosure with double safety circuit
  • Calibration included

 

Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-ray generator

maximum output power

3 kW

Output stability

< 0.01 % (for 10% power supply fluctuation)

max. output voltage

60 kV

max. output current

60 mA

Voltage step width

0.1 kV

Current step width

0.1 ma

Ripple

0.03% rms < 1kHz, 0.75% rms > 1kHz

Preheat and ramp

automatic preheat and ramp control circuit

Input voltage

230 Vac +/- 10%, 50 or 60 Hz, single phase

 

 

 

 

X-ray tube

 

type

Glass (option: ceramic), mo anode, fi focus (options: other models upon request)

 

Focus

0.4 x 8 mm FF (options: 0.4 x 12 mm lFF; 1 x 10 mm nF)

Collimation

monocapillary collimator: diameter 1-2 mm

max. output

3.0 kW

 

 

Geometry

Configurations

Vertical geometry

scanning angular range

27° < 2 theta < 40°

angular accuracy

± 0.001°

sample holder

 

Dimensions

 

110 mm x 150 mm

 

Detector

 

type

High resolution X-ray digital camera with direct coupled (micro) fi    input and cooled CCD

 

 

Case

Dimensions

Width 658 mm, heigh 1059 mm,

depth 762 mm

Leakage X-rays

< 1 msv/Year (full safety shielding according to the international guidelines)

 

 


Processing unit

Computer type

Personal Computer, state of the art PC at the time of delivery

Items controlled

X-ray generator, detector, counting chain

Basic data processing

Creation of calibration curves. Retained austenite quantifi

 

Schematics









Diffractometer- Stress X



















Overview

Stress-X allows to measure residual stress, providing a through non-destructive analysis of samples of any dimensions thanks to the original mounting of the diffractometer head on a 6 anthropomorphic axis robot.

The robot and the related measuring head are mounted on a robust trolley made of steel which holds all the control electronics, water cooler for X-ray tube cooling and personal computer.

Robot allows an accuracy in positioning and repeatability of 20 microns.

It is possible to measure specimens positioned on the measuring platform on board or any other specimen positioned outside of the instrument basement at optimal measurement distance of 700 mm from the robot centre.

Measurement target is defined by a combination of a Video camera for X-Y pointing and a laser for Z positioning.

Laser accuracy is less of 10 microns with a measuring range of 300+/-70 mm.

Thanks to the 6 degree of freedom the measurement positions and angular ranges are practically unlimited.

 

The device is typically used

  • definition of the quantity of retained austenite on bearings and parts of diesel motor injectors
  • detection of residual stress on sprocket wheels
  • detection of residual stress on car motor parts (cam axles, connecting rods, engine shafts, equalisers)
  • detection of residual stress induced by deep drawing (household appliances, structural parts)
  • detection of existing operational stress on gas conducts
  • detection of operational stress on large tensioned structures
  • measurement of efficiency of shot-peening and rolling of components subjected to stress
  • detection of residual stress in castings (cast iron parts of tool machines and aluminium automotive components)
  • detection of stress induced by (laser and electron) welding
  • search for a correlation between residual stress and stress resistance of aluminium alloy car rims
  • optimisation of working parameters for swarf removal to improve the stress resistance of mechanical components
  • detection of residual stress on helicoidal and leaf springs
  • search for critical zones after applying work loads (arms and aeronautics)


Diffractometer- Explorer




























Overview

The EXPLORER high resolution diffraction system incorporates the high efficiency of the direct drive torque motors controlled by optical encoders, allowing to reach an angular accuracy of 0.00001°.

Thanks to the modularity, all the hardware components can be changed allowing seven five independent degrees of freedom and investigations on a whole range of powders, bulk materials and thin layers.

EXPLORER offers solutions for a wide range of analytical requirements, from routine crystalline phase identification and quantification, crystallite size/lattice strain and crystallinity calculations, retained austenite quantification, polymorph screening, crystal structures analysis, to residual-stress analysis, thin films, depth profiling, non-ambient analyses, phase transition, textures and preferred orientation, nanoparticles.

The optics permit switches between Bragg-Brentano, focusing and parallel beam geometry using Johansson or parabolic mirror monochromators.

The coupling between a parabolic mirror monochromator and a channel-cut crystal mounted on the incident beam allows to realise a monochromatic parallel beam with high intensity and low divergence, suitable for high resolution measurements.

 

Features

  • High stability X-ray generator through precision feedback control circuits
  • Automatic ramp of the high voltage and emission current to preset values
  • Brilliant X-ray sources, glass and ceramic tubes plus parabolic mirror
  • Microfocus tubes and policapillary collimators
  • Parallel beam optics using parabolic monochromators
  • HRXRD due to asymmetrical, 4-bounce channel-cut Ge (022) monochromator
  • Johansson focusing Ka1 monochromators
  • Precise axial motion using torque motors controlled by optical encoders
  • Spinner, multisample, glass capillary, and multipurpose sample holders
  • Automatic change between transmission and reflection geometry
  • Secondary monochromators for Ag, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu and Mo radiations
  • Scintillation counters, silicon strip, energy dispersive and area detectors
  • High, low temperature and humidity chambers
  • Motorized sample holder with CHI, PHI and Z movements
  • XRR and GIXRD with an incident and a diffracted parallel optic Absorber and knife edge collimator for XRR measurements
  • SDD detectors for EDXRF and TXRF analysis
  • Small angle X-ray scattering using speed silicon strip detector
  • Radiation enclosure with high accessibility and visibility of the goniometer
  • Double safety circuit

 

Specification

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-ray generator

maximum output power

3 kW (option: 4 kW)

output stability

< 0.01 % (for 10% power supply fluctuation)

max. output voltage

60 kV

max. output current

60 ma (option: 80 ma)

Voltage step width

0.1 kV

Current step width

0.1 ma

Ripple

0.03% rms < 1kHz, 0.75% rms > 1kHz

Preheat and ramp

automatic preheat and ramp control circuit

Input voltage

220 Vac +/- 10%, 50 or 60 Hz, single phase

size

Width 48.3 cm, height 13.3 cm, depth 56 cm

 

 

X-ray tube

type

Glass (option: ceramic), Cu anode, fine focus (op- tions: any kind of X-ray tube)

Focus

0.4 x 8 mm FF (options: 0.4 x 12 mm lFF; 1 x 10 mm nF; 2 x 12 mm BF)

max. output

3.0 kW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goniometer

Configurations

Horizontal and vertical theta/2theta and theta/ theta geometry

measuring circle diameters

400 - 500 - 600 mm or any intermediate setting

scanning angular range

- 110° < 2 theta < + 168° (depends on acces- sories)

smallest selectable stepsize

0.0001°

angular reproducibility

± 0.0001°

modes of operation

Continuous  scan,  step  scan,  theta  or  2  theta scan, fast scan,

theta axis oscillation

Divergence slits

4°; 2°; 1°; 1/2°; 1/4°

anti-divergence slits

4°; 2°; 1°; 1/2°; 1/4°

Receiving slits

0.3; 0.2; 0.1 mm

soller slits

 

 

Detector

type

scintillation counter naI (options: YaP(Ce); multi strip and CCD detectors)

Countrate

2 x 10_6_ cps

HV/PHa

High voltage supply 600 - 2000 V, gain, low, cen- tral and high level control

 

 

Case

Dimensions

Width 1400 mm, heigh 1800 mm, depth 850 mm

leakage X-rays

< 1 msv/Year (full safety shielding according to the international guidelines)

 

 

 

Processing unit

Computer  type

Personal Computer, the latest version

Items controlled

X-ray  generator,  goniometer,  sample  holder,  de- tector, counting chain

 

Basic data processing

qualitative and quantitative phase analysis. Ri- etveld analysis,

crystalline structural analysis, crystallite size and lattice strain,

crystallinity cal- culation, strain, reflectometry.

 

Schematics

















The device is typically used

The direct drive technology offers a lot of benefits compared with the other well known technologies like worm gear, gear train, reducer or timing belt. The load is directly coupled to the motor’s rotating part, resulting in an efficient and effective gearless construction.

EXTENDED LIFETIME, RELIABILITY AND RIGIDITY: torque motors are inherently simple, with an absolute minimum number of moving parts which are not subject to wear.

HIGH ACCURACY AND REPEATIBILITY: the backlash and the hysteresis inherent in mechanical transmission elements are suppressed.

HIGH DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND HIGH EFFICIENCY: no energy is used in driving power transmission parts. Direct drive torque motors provide the highest torque-to-inertia ratio where it counts at the load.


Fluorescence Spectrometer- TX 2000



























Overview

TXRF is founded on the same principles of the EDXRF with, however, one significant difference.

In contrast to EDXRF, where the primary beam strikes the sample at an angle of 45°, TXRF uses a glancing angle of a few milliradians.

Owing to this grazing incidence, the primary beam is totally reflected. By illuminating the sample with a beam that is being totally reflected, absorption of the beam in the supporting substrate is largely avoided and the associated scattering is greatly reduced. This also reduced the background noise substantially.

A further contribution to the reduction of the background noise is obtained by minimising the thickness of the sample. A small drop of the sample (5-100 microliters of the substance dissolved in an appropriate solvent) is placed on a silica carrier.

On evaporation of the solvent a thin film, a few nanometers thick, remains. In practice the greater part of the scattering normally arising from the sample and its matrix is eliminated. This is because matrix effect cannot build up within minute residues or thin layers of a sample. Besides its high detection power, simplified quantitative analysis in made possible by internal standard.

 

Features

  • No matrix effects
  • A single internal standard greatly simplifies quantitative analyses
  • Calibration and quantification independent from any sample matrix
  • Simultaneous multi-element ultra-trace analysis
  • Several different sample types and applications
  • Minimal quantity of sample required for the measurement (5 ml)
  • Unique microanalytical applications for liquid and solid samples
  • Excellent detection limits (ppt or pg) for all elements from sodium to plutonium
  • Excellent dynamic range from ppt to percent
  • Possibility to analyse the sample directly without chemical pretreatment
  • No memory effects
  • Non destructive analysis
  • Low running cost

 

Specification

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-ray generator

maximum output power

3 kW (option: 4 kW)

output stability

< 0.01 % (for 10% power supply fluctuation)

max. output voltage

60 kV

max. output current

60 ma (option: 80 ma)

Voltage step width

0.1 kV

Current step width

0.1 ma

Ripple

0.03% rms < 1kHz, 0.75% rms > 1kHz

Preheat and ramp

automatic preheat and ramp control circuit

Input voltage

220 Vac +/- 10%, 50 or 60 Hz, single phase

Size

Width 48.3 cm, height 13.3 cm, depth 56 cm

 

X-ray tube

Type

Glass, mo/W anode, long fine focus

Focus

0.4 x 12 mm

max. output

2.5 kW

 

multilayer monochromator

Type

Si/W

Reflectivity

80%  (Wla/lb/moka

automatic sample

Sample seating

12 for TXRF - 1 for EDXRF (45°)

 

 

Detector

Type

Peltier-cooled Silicon Drift Detector (SDD)

active area

30 mm2 - (10 mm2, 50 mm 2   and 100 mm 2  as options)

Energy resolution

Shaping time 1 ms:124eV FWHm@mnKa

Preamplifier

Type

Pulsed-reset charge-preamplifier

 

Case

Dimensions

Width 550 mm, heigh 1675 mm, depth 805 mm

leakage X-rays

< 1 mSv/Year (full safety shielding according to the 

international guidelines)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Processing unit

Computer  type

Personal Computer, the latest version

Items controlled

X-ray generator, tube shield, monochromator, de- tector,

counting chain

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic data processing

multisample positioning

Counter chain parameter settings Selection of  radiation

Centring procedure K, l, & m markers

Time or count selection

acquisition of data in both geometries (TXRF - EDXRF) 

least square marquardt fit procedure for the area 

calculation (spectral  analysis)

automatic/manual search function manual or automatic 

calibration of energy

quantification via an internal standard using theo- retical 

and experimental sensitivity curves for total reflection

 

Schematics
















The device is typically used

  • Environmental Analysis: water, dust, sediments, aerosol
  • Medicine: toxic elements in biological fluids and tissue samples
  • Forensic Science: analysis of extremely small sample quantities
  • Pure chemicals: acids, bases, salts, solvents, water, ultrapure reagents
  • O ils and greases: crude oil, essential oil, fuel oil
  • Pigments: ink, oil paints, powder
  • Semiconductor Industry: by VPD (vaporphase decomposition)
  • Nuclear Industry: measurements of radioactive elements

 


Diffractometer- Europe


















Overview

EUROPE is a benchtop - Theta/2Theta - general purpose diffractometer for XRD qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycrystalline materials. Its compact size and robust design enable installation and operations in a small space and low cost of ownership and maintenance.

 

Features

Thanks to the wide offer of configurations and accessories, such as high-speed detector, scintillation counter, secondary monochromator, spinner and multiple sample holder, EUROPE is a cost-effective instrument for fast-paced routine industrial quality assurance analysis and for teaching XRD at academic level.

 

The device is typically used

  • Geology and Mineralogy
  • Clays
  • Glass - Ceramics
  • Cements
  • Petrochemicals
  • Catalysts
  • Polymers
  • Forensics
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Biosciences
  • Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Cosmetics
  • Enviromentals
  • Art and Archeology


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